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Wednesday, July 23, 2008

How Long Will We Remain The White Man's Burden?

Many years ago, someone wrote a book by that title. The White Man's Burden. The premise of the book was that the task of bringing the world up to speed on civilization was on the shoulders of the white man. For primitive people like the Africans to see the light, the white man had to act. Then there was the book Out Of Africa, by Ms. Blixen, which went on to become a blockbuster in Hollywood when it was adapted into a movie. All you have to do is read the condescending narrative of that story to get a glimpse into the mindset of the whites in Kenya back in the years. If I say they thought we were savages, no better than the animals that roamed the vast savannah, I'm being generous.

Now, before I plod into my thesis, let me warn that this is not a piece written to bash whites. No, a nice guy like me wouldn't do that. The whites have done a lot to help us make sense of this world, and in many cases have saved us from ourselves. The least we can do is be grateful. That said, I bring this matter up because this question needs to be answered: How Long will We remain The White Man's Burden? It's understandable that some of the difficulties Africans have had to endure have stemmed from forces outside their control, like the dreadful experiments of the Structural Adjustment programs in the eighties and early nineties...and the weather-related acts of God. But on matters of self-governance, who do we have to blame?
Take a walk with me across the continent today. Let's start in South Africa. Out there, one of the world's most inspiring figures just celebrated his ninetieth birthday. Nelson Mandela is a symbol of African resilience and latent genius. Yet you go down a notch from him and you meet Thabo Mbeki. This is the man who battled the global medical community about the physics of AIDS. He's presided over an administration that has failed to spread the vast wealth in South Africa...make it trickle down to the lowly people of that nation. Is it any wonder that anti-immigrant sentiment in that country is palpable these days? One can only hope that South Africa is not about to go down the path other African nations have. But before we walk away from this magnificent nation, we must call it, as of right now, one of the brightest spots on the continent.

From South Africa, let's climb up to the Southern African region. Most nations are doing relatively well here. But then there's Zimbabwe. The latest embarrassment in Africa. This nation is emblematic of African failure. The economy has collapsed. No social life to talk about. People now worship God, but wonder about His power to save them. And in politics Robert Mugabe has found a way to pull a Kibaki. What you may not realize is that the solution President Mbeki took to Zimbabwe was crafted in capitals out of Africa. Thabo was the Kofi Annan of Zimbabwe. That's why I ask, how long will we remain the white man's burden?

Let's not dwell on Zimbabwe, though. CNN and the BBC told the story in detail. So we come to the eastern Africa region. Tanzania is moving forward at a decent pace. Uganda is a stable, strong-man democracy. Djibouti, Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia are nations ravaged by hunger and wars. Because of their strategic insignificance, though, nobody seems to care what goes on there. Which leaves Kenya. The elections there were a sham. They left in place a deeply unpopular president and the worse tribal relations Kenya has ever seen. When the world bulked at the possibility of one of Africa's most strategic nations disintegrating, Dr. Annan was sent in with ready-made solutions from washington, London, Paris and Berlin. Even the IMF and the World Bank weighed in. And this is the twenty first century? Just how long will it take for us to get our act together? When do we stop being the white man's burden?

Let's drive up to Central Africa. Chad, a mess. Sudan, under sanctions, a president that's more murderous than the Nazis, a nation split between the North and South. In the end, the United Nation's, under the thumb of the United States, has had to act to save the southern blacks. And the International Court has followed the UN lead by indicting El Bashir...that monster. The question is, why can't this region's leaders feed and lead its people well? Why do they have to wait for the white man to tell them what to do?

I'll leave the Western and Northern African regions for another day. What you've witnessed as we've walked across South Africa and the wider sub-Saharan Africa is a continent that's either in decline, as if we'd ever made any significant strides, or just running in place. The tragedy of what's going on is that Africa is blessed with enormous natural resources and an abundance of human resources. But more than anything, the good Lord has seen to it that Africa's sons and daughters are now well educated and capable of excellent leadership. So how do we explain the incessant decay in Africa? Why do we keep goofing around, looking to capitals outside Africa whenever we need solutions to our problems? If the African Union can't move Africa forward, why have it? Why not replace it with a more responsive body?

The time for Africa to rise up is now. We may not successfully organize into a superstate like the emerging European Union, or the big kid on the block, the United States, which has been around for years, but we can start by strengthening the regional economic blocs, integrating the financial institutions, expanding the existing markets, having a military unit answerable to a single command, and moving steadily toward the eventual emergence of the African superstate. Am I a dreamer? Well, how did man get to the moon without dreaming? How did one man in a research facility somewhere give birth to the atomic bomb without dreaming? And how did our freedom fighters kick the colonialists' butt out of Africa without dreaming of freedom?

We must dream.

Dream big.

The biggest dream of all must be that Africa has come to the point where continued reliance on the white man's brain must end. We are capable of taking care of ourselves. So let's thank the good people of Europe and America and Asian for the good they've done, but while at it, we must be firm that from now on, we'll take care of our own problems. All we have to do is...the right thing!

How hard can that be?

God bless Africa.
Guest post by Sam O. Okello


Anonymous said...

isn't it ironical that you ask that question chris?

1) you are hiding in a white man's country running away from your own family and kids all because of fear of ghosts
2) you are writing in a white mans tongue as if we do not have swahili
3) you quote CNN and BBC as truths, i have not seen you quote any african media at all
4) you support white men stooges in the name of Raila...he even hires a white man spokeman and political advisor, yet u see no wrong...

the list is endless,

as usual junk thread with no substance...

funny thing is you cannot fail to demonise Kibaki..ha ha ha...

before ODM joined the gava, the economy was growing at 7%, inflation rate was less that 10%, food was cheap same as sasa????

the devil joined the gava

Anonymous said...

I think it is time we stop dreaming and step in and clean our messes. I guess we have dreamed for a while now and we must wake up and smell the coffee.

I heard the Singapore story from one of their Uni, professors and he gave us details of how the people of Singapore import everything including water and he said that Kenya is a blesssed country what is lacking is leadership that wants to see and embrace change. See where Singapore is today a country that has no known resource. I concur with Him what we lack in Kenya is a leader who will see Kenya as the whole lot of us and not just a particular region. Statesman leadership is what we desperately need.
The other day the speaker said that their is a brain drain in Africa because of poor governance...True all the brains are moving to go and work in other developed countries coz of what? Beats me.
The question is how do we move from the quagmire that we are in and who is it that will take us there?

Anon 1:01 iam sorry to say this but if you are looking for junk...Dont go far read your own article

Otherwise it is a nice piece.


Anonymous said...

Refer to an article by a racist Irish journalist named Kevin Myers. Myers wrote an article about how Africa's best contribution to the world so far is AIDS.

While I detest Myers condescending language, I sympathize with his erectile dysfunction worries. But this racist raises serious issues. @5 years back, Ethiopia's begging bowl went around Europe, now it is being passed round again!

Ethiopia is not the only hungry country, even Kenya is threatened. How can we Africans be defeated to fill our own stomachs? The white man surmounted baridi ya barafu, would we have achieved a similar feat? I don't think so. Mwea, Ahero, Marigat and Bura residents are currently facing starvation! Ni nini mbaya na sisi?

Tuamkeni. Ama?

Anonymous said...


we had a leader who brought free primary and sec education, revived KCC, KMC, and other farmers companies, created an enabling environment which saw every sector of the economy register profits (all banks e.t.c), brought CDF, moved kenya's economy from -ve growth to 6%, lowered inflation rate to single digits, kenya shillings strengthened against the dollar to less than 60 bob....

we had a leader but our tribalistic nature could not let us see...

now we interfered with his running of things, brought on board big mouths no action just to accomodate our tribes and in the process messed up Kenya.

if you are looking for someone to blame, take a look at your mirror.
dont blame the whites coz your alternative gava suck up to them...

Anonymous said...

Chris and all the Okellos of this world: take a good look at your own life. You live in a White Man's World and enjoy whatever he offers you. What keeps you from returning to Kenya and do all the things you say you dream of? Writing fictions and some pretentious posts distributed around the world in various blogs and not only here on Kumekucha where Chris has become your obedient servant, is so much easier. Empty words without deeds asking others to do what you are not capable to do yoursself. And once you have hit the keyboard and clic Send, you continue living in your safe White Man's World and give a sh.. about Africa. Until you realize that your name has to be remembered because it is good for your business, so those Africans you left behind 20 years ago send you their money to read your books - or to Chris to be allowed to read his Raw Notes. That's when you sit down again to give us the honour to read another sermon of yours because that's all you are capable of: Talking and writing ....... and living in the White Man's World.

Anonymous said...

I think if you look into the development record of one Adolf Hitler you will discover that few european leaders past and present can match it. I think you already get my drift.....a lot of good is done by very evil people.

If you look at what kibaki did not do that he could have done some of it costing nothing......then look at all the evil he did like triabalising the nation and corruption.....get it? Remember MO1 gave us free milk too...

Most important Kibz did not engage kenyans, he ignored our choosen leaders RAO and co whom we respect and elected, he proceeded with his own prescription without consulting with the patient. That is not leadership its called back door dictatorship.

Anyone who knows anything about leadership knows that you must 'carry, the people with you, no matter how brilliant your idea is, it is your job to sell it to the people and failute to do so is failure to lead.You don't even have the luxury of blaming the people, you must understand them and work with them at their level.
You hav not been elected to judge but to lead if you can't then move on.

We all have bright ideas but they go nowhere cause we cannot convince others to adopt them, now thats the difference between a leader and the lead. When you try to shove your so called good ideas to the people and expect them to cheer you on then your nothing but a dictator. in a democray you sell if the don't buy too bad, the customer is always king.

We are a free people and that freedom ought to be respected we elected kibz to protect that freedom we can creat 12% growth on our own just give us the constitution we asked for, you can keep your 6% nobody elected him for that.

Sir Alex

Anonymous said...

Okello, your question should be: How long will I remain the White Man's Burden? Don't you think that 20 years is long enough? Return to Kenya or your native Uganda, endure the hardships in your beloved Africa if you can of course and then, maybe, you will have gained and earned the authority to tell us what we should do. Until you are not willing to join us and prefer continue living in your White Man's World, shut up.

Anonymous said...

"Let me warn that this is not a piece written to bash whites. No, a nice guy like me wouldn't do that. The whites have done a lot to help us make sense of this world, and in many cases have saved us from ourselves. The least we can do is be grateful."

Indeed it is not such a piece. On the contrary, it portrays is an unobjective view of North-South relations assuming that the "white man" is always benevolent.

Anonymous said...


This is a piecec that should be posted at the door of university libraries across Africa. Students need to go to school with the aim of finding solutions to Africa's many problems.

Dr. Sachs,
University of Wisconsin

Anonymous said...

As much as I would like to believe what you say about South Africa is true..... but it is the contrary. It has turned out to be the most dangerous, criminal and corrupt countries and it took them less than 10 years to reach this leval. Nelson Mandela may be regarded as a Saint now, but he did not leave a legacy in his own country nor does anybody deem it advisable to follow in the footsteps he left behind. One of his biggest mistakes was to avoid the Aids issue which he tried to totally ignore until is only son was found HIV-positive and died. Yes, Mandela found the courage to apologize to the Nation for which alone he should be admired and set up his Foundation to help mainly Aids Orphans. But as he admitted himself, too late. The economy is still in the hands of the leading white class joined by some Asians and a few Africans. The poor are still jobless and starving, living under the same miserable conditions in socalled townships as before. And you call this an African miracle? Open your eyes and talk to people before publishing your essays.........

Onyango Nyakach said...

the good Lord has seen to it that Africa's sons and daughters are now well educated and capable of excellent leadership. So how do we explain the incessant decay in Africa?

It can be explained as follows:
1. We have refused to eject criminals from authority. The French had guillotines where the royal families blood was spilled once they started amassing wealth for themselves while the masses suffered. The history of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland's royal families is one of non-apologetic killing of royal families whenever they engaged in corruption and crime. Later kings and leaders learned that if they were not responsive to their electorate, their blood would surely be spilled.

Their current type of leadership, which they call democracy, makes it difficult for thieving lowly criminals to rise to leadership positions. In Kenya we are supposed to have skipped the important political developmental stage of 'Killing Corrupt Leader' and jumped into embracing the 'white man's' democratic system.

The clever men of Africa you talk about turn into thieves as soon as they enter political office.

My suggestion is that we need to inject a stimulus to our leadership style so that we no longer are the white man's burden: kill corrupt presidents!

Let's have Moi and Kibaki lined up against a wall and felled by a hail of bullets. Let's us kill Molasses Odinga, Let's kill all the thieves and then say - 'Hallo, anyone who ever rules will be summarily shot dead if caught to have engaged in corruption!'

Without that, it will be a game of musical chairs until eternity.

Omar said...

An excellent post. What about Mauritius (my most favorite African nation) and Seychelles? And Botswana? They seem to be doing well. Mauritius is certainly doing well; Seychelles is heavily indebted, but its people are generally better off than most of us.

As for North Africa, most, even Lybia with its great wealth aren't doing that much better; except Tunisia.

papa plus said...

Why are we so enamored by the 6% growth? Is this actual growth or has it to do with donor aid pouring in?

What is the GDP of Kenya? What is the per capita income of Kenya?

A cursory google of to these questions and you will see that our GDP has not even doubled since 1990. I use 1990 because this is about the time when sanctions were placed on Moi GK and the shilling dropped drastically. Remember that the economy grew at 6.6% between 1963 -73.

Our per capita income est. $1000 is significanlty less than some the leading African countries like Namibia est.$7000

So am not saying that KIbaki administration has been bad for kenya. They have done a good job, but was are essentially where we were in 1963. Compare us to the tiger economies and you will agree that we have work to do.

Stolen elections by PNU and/or ODM and violence and corruption are not the way to go.

Anonymous said...


I agree with your post 100%. We need Africans to run and manage africa's natural resources.

Anonymous said...

We need to start by decolonizing our minds. Africans and people of African decent suffer from two main problems. They either have been drugged by colonialism or slavery. Come to America and see what black kids do in schools. Most of these kids will be better taught by white teachers than black...reason the whites seem to know what they are doing. As a teaching assistant (pursuing a Ph.D in Chemistry in the US) I have had to endure some of this crap, yep in my courses I beat these fellows hands down. Ofcourse we will have some who we compete on a similar footing and at the end of the day they want you to believe they are better and believe me they try all the time. So rather than addressing the issue" How Long Will We Remain The White Man's Burden?" lets start by addressing the issue " When will we decolonize our minds". As Ali Mazrui aptly stated in one of his articles, "who is the prince charming that will lead Africa from the doldrums".


papa plus said...

Anon 9:01

Africans to manage the natural resources? And you think the whites are going to agree to that? Never going to happen as long as we are fragmented. For your regular African Mugabe, Kibaki, Museveni type, their sole purpose is to hold onto their village power. Any talk of Africa uniting as a common market with common interests is way above their understanding.

Panafricanism is the only way out. Meaning we have to form something akin to the EU or OPEC.

But trust Africans to miss the point entirely. De Beers have the contracts to mine and sell diamonds in SA. Very interesting story of how they bought that land from the De beers brothers for peanuts and how they control the price of diamonds.

papa plus said...

Again it seems obvious to me that the root cause of many of our problems stems from corruption and lack of ethics towards public service.

One of the main ingredients for a working panafrican union has to be hegemony amoung member states. You can not have Zimbabwe with 2 mil % inflation and not expect it to harm SADC, you can not have Kenya burning with IDPs and refugees and expect it not to affect the EA community. When one country sneezes, the rest catch a cold.

So as long as we have fellows who are short sighted in their goals to live in state house at whatever costs, there is no way we can recind any colonial deals controling natural resources. As long as we have uncontrollable levels of corruption, there is no way we can manage our resources ala Nigeria who have the best quality oil in the world but who can not maximize on its returns. Instead they are fighting thugs who keep blowing up the pipe line. You can not have Congo, which blessed with all soughts of minerals; not being able to even control entire sights as they ward off scavengers like Uganda and Rwanda from pillaging these resources.

That's just the reality.

Anonymous said...

Sam Okello, YOU are the burden to the white men..or let me put it better, the burden to the WHITE WOMAN.

You stole money from a WHITE WOMAN.
You published a fake book with the picture of the daughter of a WHITE WOMAN.
You flirted with a WHITE WOMAN.
You said that you barely get any sleep thinking about this WHITE WOMAN.
And now your wife, aka shaddy, aka Hellnista Okello is a sworn enemy of a WHITE WOMAN, because she believes, wrongly, that this white woman is out to get her. WRONG.

Sam Okello, thief. Sam Okello, liar. Sam Okello, fornicator. Sam Okello, Fish monger, rumor monger, hate monger etc.
Sam Okello, receiver of a Dossier that fell on his feet.

Sam Okello, pay off the money you owe this WHITE WOMAN, then you will talk about other things!


Anonymous said...


Look at the quality of blogging going on here. What I see is that this discussion is way out of your league. Ever heard of Drum Magazine, that is where your trash belongs.

Anonymous said...

Africa United! Yes we can.

Anonymous said...

I'm dreaming too that soon and very soon, the motherland will be without borders. I dream that we can one day drive from South African to Liberia, I dream that Africa will have a common currency. I dream that Africa will have one head of state. How I hope this happens in my lifetime!

Anonymous said...

We will remain the white man's burden as long as we travel to their nations to further education. We need to stay in the continent!

Anonymous said...

Okello, your statement ties with that Raila issued in the UK. We're not begging. We want to be independent. I hope a day will come when we no longer seek free lunch from the white man.

UrXlnc said...


this is a good post. also very fine comments above.

i'd like to add, the problems are not confined to africa but to any developing nation and if you look closer you see mirror situations occurring in those other developing countries as well. the same levels of poverty, corruption etc seen in africa are also found in those other developing countries, so its got nothing to do with our "africa-ness" but rather in where developing countries currently are.

the developed world, was first off the blocks, and over considerable period of time have evolved their systems of governance and technology and the society has naturally adapted or adopted all positive aspects giving rise to improved and stronger economies as well as attractive products. and the gap between is widening for obvious reasons.

developing countries on the other hand are forever playing catch up, trying to jump to the technologies and lifestyles, many times getting ensnared in sometimes harmful policies and trying to compare or match up to these robust societies without setting up structures or going through the correct processes to build up to it which includes having a national sense of pride and ownership as well as effective resource building, retention and management strategies. its a short-cut mind set where we want to get there fast as possible which leads to a consumer mentality rather than producer mentality and of course some of the evils of it such as corruption or camouflage to hide some glaring deficiencies. but we all know this. our leadership just capitalizes on it. i think kenya is on the right track overall, if we can shake off some negative influences (corruption, nepotism, poor leadership, etc)

increasingly, leadership is being put under the spotlight so sooner or later events will turn around, just takes longer than needed.

despite the hate and heat you can see people here really want to move ahead, but we just don't quite agree on "the plan", so far our heroes are alternating between those without plans but can rally tribes together, those with plans but cannot rally tribes, those with tribes but no plans, those with plans but no tribes, those bribing others, etc, not forgetting the basket cases with no plans and no base.

But we are on the right track, we have enough informed people getting to the right places.

Anonymous said...

We the people of Africa must first learn to appreciate each other both in the diaspora and the motherland. Stop the hatred. Stop the jealousy. Start innovation. Start dreaming. And we'll arrive in the United States of Africa before dawn.

Anonymous said...

Do not be a bonafide white luo living and hiding in white people's land and working for their own good and then following-nay , WORSHIPPING - a Ojinga leader who is the puppet of the west, and then dare to dictate like a blind fool of how Africa needs to "not be a white man's burden". YOU are, living in their land.
If you read history, a lot of European countries went through the very same thing that we did, and had 30 year wars at a time that knew no end and saw more savagery than what has ever been seen in Africa etc. Read your books Okello.
There is a LOT OF HISTORY that goes into any single happening. While I am all for Africa lifting itself out of western mouths and media- for which Okello you are now part of, and feed off like all true luos- always gain by pinpointing the worst of Africa and ignoring all good. Opening your mouth without real positive action will not change a thing.
@Anon 1.01: Raila's spokesperson is a muslim, as part of the muslim gang (and all others) who surround Raila the western puppet. The man is a sell-out and there seems to be a tug-of-war between western powers and the muslims around him to get him on either side and like a jan'go, he is grinning endlessly at the attention without much thinking.

@ Anon 1.27
The Myers author should be reminded that the money they enjoy came from the gold and diamonds in Africa and central America, all stolen and twisted to turn it into a power factor.
In any case, you shouldn't be reading such garbage- which pinpoints the lack of African viewpoints in the world media stage, books, articles and all- that you can feed on instead of reading such obviously insulting words about yourselves, meant to make you further useless to your continent and run abroad to hide.

That said, politics gets into the way of economic thinking in Africa. Say for example, the trip organised by Harun Mwau for Ukambani Mp's to go to Dubai and learn a few things of how those people have managed to grow abundant food in deserts worse than sahara, was met and refuted by all sorts of politics that undermined such a simple, positive, development-minded task that would have benefited their own people. But, the same thing happened to a greater extent in old Europe(and still does), to greater or minor extents. Also remember that more Asian countries than African are dirt poor, at war (only 8 out of 62 African countries are in political turmoil) or under dicatorships but that you'd never see that on the western media diet you're all on.
More over, your economic growth, the number of schools set up and general development has superceded any pace seen by any continent at our stage of growth in all centuries past or present. So first, give yourselves kudos for what has been achieved -quit being western puppets/monkeys demoralised by whatever western governments/media say/feed you with and words, and then ACT FURTHER to improve and lift the continent to what it was before all interference and subsequent disruption and fall-outs that are in strong effect to this day. Mongrels like the confused and disenfranchised Okello of low self esteem are NOT to be taken seriously.
It is only about 200 years since we all met face to face, which is like a day, so put things in strong perspective and work forward.

Anonymous said...

Who is it that begged the white man to come and resolve a violent conflict that he stoked and fueled? Yes, you got it right--the one and only Ojinga (nice name). So much for indipendence! Sadly, still sooo unpresidential; might learn a tip or two from his cousin.

Anonymous said...

What you should be talking about is our arrested development , where would we be as africans had the mzungu not interfered with our way of life? , personaly i believe we would be much better off our troubles started as soon as we wanted to become black whites.Africans did not know corruption and such vices ,look at the the kingdoms across africa before your god the mzungu came , alot of our history has been distorted to make us continue hating ourselves , liberate yourself and mind bwana sam their is nothing nice the muzungu brought us just , greed , selfhate, violence , corruption ,stupidity in the name of education, need i continue?

Anonymous said...

anon @3:46, respect this blog. If you cannot discuss this intellectual post, you just ought to shut up. Attacking personalities is low. Attack ideas. Okello's points have merit.

Anonymous said...

Africa is full of intelligent thought. It's about time the minds come together to weave a constitution for the United African Nations.

Anonymous said...

It's not hard at all to dream big Mr. Okello. I'm starting tonight!

Osoro said...

Why can't the African heads of state come together and implement this brilliant idea?

Anonymous said...

Anona 5:25 aka Okello,
You can worship Indians and Chinese too, white people are not the only ones with nukes. Or is it just wazungus that you adore?

Anonymous said...

Anon@3:46, as long as we continue with a pathetic attitude such as yours, we'll remain a burden until kingdom come.

Ever heard the saying that 'if you want to hide anything from an African, put it in a book'? I read Myer's article and felt insulted but inspired.

By the way I reside in Thika, Kenya not in the white man's land. If you have nothing constructive for this blog leave it alone.

Enyang'au Yorosana said...

I think Kumekucha needs to upgrade itself to a blog of ideas where only men and women with a semblance of intelligence are allowed to post. Morons will never understand that what we need is the critical analysis of an idea devoid of assassinating its thinker. Logical argumentation has nothing to do with the almost never-ending slip into tribe mauling, and discussion of the writer rather than the idea. How can we dream of a United States of Africa when there are idiots who cut and slice into Kenya's very statehood, without reference to the topic under discussion?

I am willing to give a few hours a day just to delete any crap based on tribal venom if none of the authors on this blog can. We must always remember that majority of the masses are ignorant and, I hate to say this, stupid. When the representatives of the 'Stupid Collective Mass' crawl out of their holes into Kumekucha, we can expect no constructive ideas from them. They pull us down to their level because their very lack of critical thought forces us to focus on them, rather than the inherent desert of intelligence thought and ideas that their brains spew out.

Good lord, someone direct them to Mashada or Jukwaa - the homes of half-witted tribe bashers!

Anonymous said...

The reason there is so much TURMOIL in Africa is due to colonization.HEAR THIS.The French were able to accept an African as French, if they gave up their African culture and adopted French ways, even including marriage with a (white) French person. The British did not accept full equality even for an African adopting British ways, and disapproved of interracial marriage. The Portuguese were more tolerant than the British concerning mixed marriages, though still viewing full blooded Portuguese as superior. Knowledge of Portuguese language and culture and abandonment of traditional ways defined one as CIVILIZED!!!
HEAR THIS..The fact that Africa was last to be colonized also meant that it was the last to gain independence as European imperialists wanted to hang on to their African colonies long enough to get a return on the investments they had put into their various economic ventures. Most of the countries in Africa have undergone decolonization in the latter half of the 20th century. This explains in part why there are so many conflicts going on in Africa today. It is not an easy task to form an independent nation. Every country has a difficult time in its formative years.THEY MESSED AFRICAN NATIONS TOOK THE LOOT AND THEN TOLD US TO REBUILD NEW NATIONS!!!!now they come back to asess and build UN missions in Africa for peace.HYPOCRITES!

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