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Sunday, September 23, 2007

What Would You Do If You Were A Looter In Kenya Today?


Somebody told us here that when you go to the bank and they tell you your balance is Kshs 500 million, your thinking and everything about you changes. I believe this is 1000% true and for this reason it would be very difficult for any ordinary Kenyans like me and you who has not looted billions from the people of Kenya to figure out the way looters think.


Raila Amollo Odinga: Mere talk, or can he really deal with powerful looters in Kenya? Read open letter to Raila From Swiss national he made a promise to in German.

Just to give an example from the Kroll report. You are so rich that money is coming out of your ears, literally, but then you decide not to pay your lawyer’s bills and many other bills for services rendered. So when a lawyer keeps $650,000 from land they have sold on your behalf and sends you a fee note demanding the balance, you go ballistic. You even rush to a city hotel when somebody calls you to tell you that the lawyer involved is there having a drink and you go on cause a scene in public. Yet to you $650,000 is chicken feed. You could literally use it as toilet paper and not even think about it.

Still I will ask you to put yourself in the shoes of looters in view of the Saturday speech by Raila and also new developments in recent weeks which seem to threaten your family fortune stuffed in foreign accounts. What would you do now that it has become apparent that Raila is set to win the general elections? Would you;

(a) Join ODM and heavily finance...

Read more

The world flocks in to get hold of the finally-published-in-full Marianne Briner/Jeff Koinange no-holds-barred steamy emails.

All you need To Make Big Money Online from anywhere in Kenya is an email address and a cell phone. That’s It!!!


Phil said...

Chris, even as you post this, are you aware that Raila's COMMAND CENTRE was raided in the wee hours of this morning?

According to a press release on Raila's website ( raid bears similarities to ODM secretariat and The Standard Raids All mainstream media have ignored this story and instead opted to report that Kibaki attended church this morning!!!

With all this political violence in just one weekend, I think your prediction that Moi and chronies will not take Raila's rising popularity lying low is unfolding right infront of our eyes.. You can ask that again Chris, What Would You Do If You Were A Looter In Kenya Today?

ANSWER: Raid your opponents office and home. Instigate clashes in Rift Valley.

We are in for serious trouble. The status-quo system is fighting back. And you know what; Raila is a marked man. Am serious Chris.

Vikii said...

I will respond to this non sense in just one while. I have some beautiful people in the crib now.

Vikii said...

People, for the hundred and first time I want to tell you that Raila Odinga and his gang of fellow thieves like William Ruto, Musalia Mudavadi, Henry/Sally Kosgei,Cyrus Jirongo and the others have neither the courage nor the moral authority to prosecute anyone. I am surprised those shouting loudest about 'looters being afraid of an imaginary Raila Odinga presidency' (Yes, the likes of Chris and Phil) never talk about the economic crimes in which Raila Odinga himself is implicated. Why should anybody have the audacity to link Hon uhuru kenyatta, for example, with fraud when there is no concretely known mischief that Hon Uhuru has ever associated himself with and fail to see known crimes masterminded by Raila Odinga and his immoral friends in the ODM? Dont get me wrong, Jomo Kenyatta not only stole from Kenyans, he presided over unimaginable eliminations of valuable sons of Kenya, you just needed to hold a divergent opinion to fall victim. BUT I ask, what does that have to do with Uhuru? Should we credit raila Odinga and Musalia Mudavadi with the accomplishments of their fathers? Should we on the same note blame them for their fathers' misdeeds? Why is Uhuru being treated like an exception then? Nobody applied to have a POLICE FATHER (Yes, some of us are sons of policemen or so I am told), nobody applied to have a pit latrine digger for a father and nobody applied to have a president as a father. For heavens sake Uhuru was 17 when his father died. I have also seen people here deliberately try to link the persons of Karuri and Livondo with corruption just because they support Mwai Kibaki.

According to every alumni of Raila Odinga's school of thought (And yeah, they constitute 85% of Kumekucha's readership and commentry), everyone supporting Mwai Kibaki has something in his pockets that he wants protected. Everybody supporting Raila Odinga is 'an agent of change' out to save Kenya from the claws of corruption. I can name more than 25 members of the current cabinet who will feel insulted if compared to 75% of the ODM high command. They are Mwai Kibaki, Morriss Dzoro, Martha Karua, Kivutha Kibwana, John katuku, Joseph Munyao, Kaluki Ngilu, Mukhisa Kituyi, Musikari kombo, simeon Nyachae, Amos kimunya, mutahi kagwe, Rashid Shakombo,Newton Kulundu,Chirau Ali MAkuro,Moses Akaranga and many others. YET these small time lecturers here want us to believe that anything associated with Kibaki is so fucking gross. We can also name more than 50 of the top ODM characters who should be in jail had we a leadership that does what it says. My point is that Raila Odinga's party has more thieves than even those in government today. Only the hysterical type get excited by those little Raila speeches about people finding themselves in jail. He should be the first to appear before any Truth and Reconcilliation Commission to explain why he misused the GSU against his opponents when he was appointed minister by Moi.

Information is all over that raila Odinga's family was just another middle class family in the pre 2001 period. Now I have read in this very blog that he is worth over Kshs 4 billion. That is not the kind of money you find with every bloke in town. I know the employment history of Oginga Odinga, Oburu Oginga and Raila odinga. Can those "Reliable sources" 'reveal' to you how he made his money? I am sure that none of you Raila apologists can quote any credible source of his money and while I am perfectly aware that we should not accuse him of corruption just because he is crazy rich, other people have been crucified on this very tree for just that. If you must respond to this, please mention the mollasses saga and if you cant, then dont bother responding. The easier option for you guys is so predictably the second.

And Phil and your raids, what makes you think goons raiding Raila's whatever is better news than Mwai Kibaki attending a church service? Can you compare the kind of press coverage that Raila undeservedly gets with any other politician's? The standard even goes to his dining room and takes pictures of him either eating oranges and cookies or holding grandchildren. According to you, all newspapers in Kenya should become another Kumekucha where day in day out we are told of Raila in Denver, Kansas, JKIA and Kakamega. Give us a break people. You are the same guy who told me here that (less than 24 hours before the ODM characters were lynched actually) the same hired goons are the voters. Does that still hold or does it just like so many things before it get isolated treatment because it was done to "pro change activists" and "reformers" like William Ruto?

Anonymous said...

Raila's wealth is merely kenya media propaganda are they not the same people who claimed that raila has a hummer worth 40 million kshs?, did Gm not launch the vehicle at 6million only months later? and factor in the one from gm is not duty exempt.

Anonymous said...

How did the Raila Odinga family make their millions? How much did they make from Kenyan's first pyramid, the so called luo thrift trading co. of 1930's that swindled jaluos of the little they have ever owned? What about the molasses scandal? what of the theft of road funds? and who is bank rolling the idiot in his current campaigns? What was he doing in the USA meeting with Columbian and Italian "businessmen"? How is he going to get rid of corruption when he is also surrounded by corrupt thieves like ruto, kosgey, ntimama,etc Raila can only cheat his fellow Kavirondo kihiis. Long live PANU. Kioko. BC. Canada.

Phil said...

You know Vikii must always find this or that wrong with Raila. Vikii goes as far as complaining that press coverage is favouring Raila...please!

I do not hold brief for Raila, but I shall reprint this article for your benefit Vikii. Business and politics mix well, and Raila is his own political man; Unless you have proof of underhand deals you accuse him of my assumption is that he has deservedly earned his wealth. This might not be a re-print of his bank statement but it gives you an idea. Perhaps you should ask why the NARC government refused to heed calls for making wealth declaration forms accessible to the public. You also seem completely ignorant of Jaramogi's political and business legacy to the point of saying Raila's family was "just another middle class family prior to 2001". Vikii, you cannot change history however much you cant stomach it; this is for your information and education. Let Kenyans and the world be the ones to pass judgement on Raila.
The sudden ostentatious display of wealth by Raila Odinga has left many baffled. Unbeknown to the public, Raila is a fabulously wealthy man in his own right with a personal fortune estimated to be in excess of Kshs. 4 billion. Read how the man who wants to be Kenya’s next president acquired his wealth which includes investments in the lucrative petroleum industry and in manufacturing.
How Raila acquired his billions.
Raila Odinga’s big break came in 2001 soon after he led his party, NDP, into a merger with KANU, the then ruling party. As Energy Minister in Moi’s government he was introduced to the family of Sheikh Abdukeder AlBakari, one of the richest families in Saudi Arabia with interests in petroleum drilling, petroleum exploration and export in the Middle East, Asia, USA and Africa.

Through the Saudi contacts,Raila was initiated into the lucrative world of oil business and soon enough he had joined the league of gig independent oil importers via his firm Pan African Petroleum Limited.

Industry sources say that one of the things that helped Raila make a quick buck in the oil business was a concessionary petroleum deal he struck with the Al Bakri Group where he was not only incorporated as a silent partner in the local arm of Al Bakri International but was also supplied with petroleum products from Saudi Arabia at subsidized prices which his firm would sell in the market at normal prices. That way,Raila was able to deftly beat the competition in oil business by occasional price undercutting.

While still Energy Minister,Raila re-established and nurtured his links with the Libyan government of Colonel Muammar Gadaffi where again he not only did good business in oil importation but also got substantial material support during the 2002 general elections.

Besides supporting Raila’s political causes, the Libyans also played a key role in stabilizing Raila in the oil business in a couple of ways. Industry sources say that between 2001 and 2002 when Raila served as Energy Minister,he received at least three consignments of petroleum products at very low prices which were later sold locally at market prices.

The overall turnover from the three Libyan consignments is reliably said to have been in the region of over half a billion shillings, a tidy sum of money in any language,enough to ensure that one crosses the Rubicon once and for all.
Raila’s enviable international links
Reliable sources say that Libyans bankrolled the NARC campaign with some US$ 3 million (about Kshs 210 million), thanks to Raila’s good contacts in the oil-rich land of Gadaffi. There is no doubt that if Raila becomes the ODM presidential candidate he can count on massive financial support from the Libyans once more.

Besides Libya, Raila enjoys good links with the South African government of Thabo Mbeki while in Nigeria he is known to have strong links with immediate former president Olosegun Obasanjo,who was a close friend of Raila’s late father Jaramogi.

That Libyans, South Africans and Nigerians had enough confidence in Raila to channel campaign funds through him although he himself was not a presidential in 2002 is an indication of how highly regarded he is in some international circles.

Evidently,he could certainly count on even more enthusiastic support from his international contacts should he become the ODM presidential candidate.

For Raila,the linkage between politics and business went much deeper than petroleum business. It is significant that the Odinga family business,Spectre International Ltd,acquired the then state-owned Kisumu Molasses Plant soon after Raila started politically cooperating with Moi.

Raila has consistently argued that the acquisition of the molasses plant was a pure business deal which had nothing to do with politics, but his critics point out at the coincidence between the time his family acquired the parastatal and Raila’s shift of political alliance. It is highly unlikely - indeed one may even say impossible - that the Moi government would have sanctioned the Kisumu Molasses Plant deal at the time if Raila had not become an ally of Moi’s.

Former commissioner of Lands Sammy Mwaita offered to sell the 240 acres on which the Kisumu Molasses Plant is built to Spectre International on January 11,2001 at a price of Kshs 3.6 million at a time when Odinga started working closely with Moi. By June of the same year, Raila was appointed to the cabinet and made Energy Minister.

Significantly, Spectre International had applied for the same land in a letter of February 18,1999 but the request had been rejected by the government at the time.

Titles were prepared in favour of Spectre International on February 3,2002 for a 99-year lease backdated to September 1,2001 and the Odinga family was ready to laugh all the way to the bank.

When the Odinga family started the process that led to the acquisition of the Kisumu Molasses Plant in 2001,Raila had already established good business contacts in South Africa. Energem Resources Incorporated,an international firm quoted at the Toronto Stock Exchange,had been looking for an investment opportunity in Kenya for a long time and the Kisumu Molasses Plant appeared just right.

Soon after taking over the plant from the government, Raila struck a lucrative deal with Energem whereby the Canadian firm bought 55 per cent of the Kisumu Molasses plant. Sources say that the Odinga family was paid over US$ 5 million (about Kshs 420 million) to relinquish the control of the molasses plant. The Odinga family had paid only Kshs 3.6 million for the property.

The Canadians also ploughed in millions of dollars to rehabilitate the plant and it is today one of the largest manufacturing concerns in the country employing hundreds of people and producing at least 60,000 litres of industrial ethanol for local consumption and export.

Ethanol from the Kisumu Molasses Plant is used as a fuel additive in east and Central Africa. Among other products coming out of the plant include yeast, carbon dioxide alcohol and related industrial products.

A valuation of the plant carried out three three years ago placed the Kisumu Molasses Plant at US$100 million (Kshs 7 billion). With the Odinga family owning 40 percent of the plant,putting the family├ó€™s stake in the plant in the region of Kshs 7.8 billion. The remaining five per cent shares in the plant are owned by a development trust on behalf of the local community.

Besides Kenya where Energem is in partnership with Raila in the Kisumu molasses plant business, now renamed Kisumu Ethanol Plant, other African countries where Energem’s presence is significant include Sierra Leone, Sao Tome, Congo Brazaville, Angola. Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC),Chad and Central Africa republic.

Raila’s wealth at a glance

Estimated Worth

Spectre International Limited (the holding company for Kisumu Ethanol Plant)
Kshs 7 billion of which Odinga family owns 40 per cent whose value is approximately Kshs 2.8 billion

East African Spectre (the gas cylinder manufacturing plant founded by Raila’s late father)
Kshs 500 million

Raila’s family home in Karen Nairobi
Kshs 50 million

Runda House
Kshs 15 million

Pan African Petroleum Company (the firm through which the Odinga family imports and distributes petroleum products)
Has had a turnover in excess of Kshs 500 million.


MB said...

Thanks Phil - I was sitting down to write also on this subject when I saw your article - but there are some very important things missing:

When these South African Partners entered, it was originally under their former name Diamond Works Ltd. - they changed their name in 2004 because of some bad media publicity linking them to illegal arms deals, money laundering, shady oil contracts etc. .... so when they entered the Toronto Stock Exchange, they needed a new and clean name - so Diamond Works Ltd. disappeared ..... but the Chairman is still the same: a certain Tony Teixeira with a more than dubious background in arms dealing and mercenary services in various African countries ....

The main reason behind this restructure has been seen in connection with an armed attack on their Angola Diamond Mine in which several workers had been killed .... and some were missing. But Diamond Works upto now has not compensated the families of these workers and they are still waiting for a final settlement in accordance with the terms of the employment contracts ........ (if you want to read the whole sad story go to and you will find Diamond Works in the center of the trade in 'blood' diamonds .....

But in spite of this and according to their company statement of January 20, 2004 (still under the name Diamond Works Ltd.) they confirm that 'deliveries into the Kenyan market have recommenced with an initial allocation of 1.514 tonnes of crude oil already delivered to Mombasa, Kenya .... and then on July 21 the same year they say: Kenya .... the Company continues with its long-term strategy of entering into the Kenyan mid-stream fuel industry and we are currently meeting our ongoing obligations for the supply of crude oil to the Kenyan refinery in terms of our licence ....... we also currently purchase refined fuel within the Kenyan market for re-sale and it is our intention as of August 2004 to commence with the blending of our Kenyan refined fuel with the ethanol produced at our Kisumu ethanol plant .....

And since you mention the millions of Dollars they have invested: the reality is that they have given a loan which has to be repaid .... and as they confirm in their last statement 'the refunding of this loan is on schedule .....'

For many commentators, this smells like 'money laundering' ..... it is also interesting that this Group buys and sells continiously companies and/or their shares in companies around the world .... also here the question of money-laundering has been raised .......

In Kenya they appear especially for their oil deals under Petroplus - a company originally based in Angelo (again the subject 'blood' diamonds appears in this connection) with an administration branch in Switzerland .............

And to complete the picture: Energem not only holds 55 % of the Kisumu Ethanol Plant but also 51 % in Spectre itself ........ this makes them double-standard partners of the Odinga Family ......

And these are the questions and doubts I would like Mr. Odinga to answer to ........

Marianne Briner

Anonymous said...

Thanks Marianne. Could you reveal more about Raila the bastard thief so that his blind followers can see his evil machinations. Raila Odinga is a stinting nigger and we need to see the idiot in his true colours. Kioko. BC. Canada.

Phil said...


2nd Half (Raila Versus Moi)

The year is two thousand and eight. All is quiet and peaceful on the
dark January night. Suddenly, a haunting scream cuts through the dense
darkness with the sharpness of a razor. It is Moi screaming on top of
his lungs. An aide runs across the room to check on the former
president. Thank God, it is only a bad dream.

"Mzee...mzee..." The aide calls out as he tries in vain to stir the
former president out of his nightmare.

But Moi is completely possessed and he starts screaming
uncontrollably... "Raila...Raila...Raila!"

"Mzee...please wake up." The aide respectfully shakes the old man by the
shoulder. Just like the three previous nights, Moi is having another of
his disturbing Raila nightmares.

The aide shakes Moi harder and finally the former president snaps out of
his scary dream. His face is covered in sweat and his lips are
trembling. He stares at the aide like a zombie, he looks around the room
and then turns back to his aide, "Who is the president of Kenya?" He
asks in a loud whisper.

The aide takes a few steps backwards. Clearly the poor fellow dislikes
the question, or is it the answer that he is being forced to deliver
which terrifies him? The aide hesitates.

"Who is the president of Kenya?" Moi demands angrily.

"Ah...mzee, you already know it is Raila Odinga!" The man replies

"Oh No... Not Raila... Oh No... Not Raila!" The former president
agonizes in excruciating pain. Moi's worst nightmare is now a living

Such a scenario may seem exaggerated and over dramatized but mind you,
it is not far-fetched! At the moment, Raila stands a chance at becoming
the fourth president of the Republic of Kenya. I admit that President
Kibaki presents a tough and credible challenge but Tinga has never had a
better opportunity than today. Moi realizes the likelihood of a Raila
presidency and the old man is horrified!

A few days ago, the former president came out with bluster and not only
declared his support for President Kibaki but also promised to deliver
the Rift Valley vote. He declared that Raila and Kalonzo were nothing
more than tribal chiefs seeking to divide the country. But we know Moi.
We have experienced Moi. And Kenya is lucky to have survived his twenty
four year presidency, which was characterized by economic plunder, mass
corruption, tribal divisions, staggering unemployment, thieving
government officials and great injustice.

Obviously, Moi, just like any other private citizen has the
constitutional right to support whichever presidential candidate he
wants but that's where his political influence must stop. Moi has lost
his political credibility; his bad history invalidates any vision he
might have for our dear country. So now we must ask: Why is Moi
supporting Kibaki? It is hypocritical to pretend as human beings that we
all don't have our own agendas-some self-serving and some for the common
good but Moi is a career politician and that fact alone demands Kenyans
to question and scrutinize his agenda with vehement vigor.

It beats logic that today Moi considers Kibaki the best thing for Kenya.
After all, Kibaki served Moi as vice president for ten years. But as we
all know, Moi sacked Kibaki unceremoniously and replaced him with
political charlatans. After the Multiparty era, the two men remained on
the opposite ends of Kenyan politics. During the last elections, Moi
campaigned feverishly against Kibaki and tried to impose Uhuru Kenyatta
on the Kenyan people. Even during the Orange and Banana phenomena Moi
stood against Kibaki. But after all that political history, it is
perplexing that today Moi wants us to believe he has new-found faith in

What Moi doesn't realize is the fact that in only five years Kibaki has
accomplished what Moi failed to do in twenty four years. Although the
current Kibaki government is not without flaws, it has managed to
reenergize Kenyans and prove to the people that good things are still
possible in Kenya. If anything, Kibaki's quick success, though not
perfect, validates Moi's abysmal failure as Kenyan longest serving
president. It is a pity that Kibaki is now reaching out to his
predecessor who can only hurt him politically.

In my opinion, Moi doesn't believe in Kibaki as much as he fears Raila.
In his wildest dreams, the former president never imagined that one day
Kenyans across tribe would consider electing Raila the president of
Kenya. Moi is a terrified man suffering from what I call RP-Raila
Paronoia- and he wants to take the rest of us down with him. Moi knows
that Raila can change Kenyan politics forever. Moi understands that
Raila can right many of the wrongs perpetrated on the citizenry during
his Nyayo era.

Raila is his own man, he is not susceptible to Moi's manipulation. He
proved it by defying Moi during the last elections and made it worse
when he killed the old man's dreams of a Uhuru Kenyatta presidency. When
Raila quit Moi's "dream" team he took Kalonzo, Kamotho, Siatoti, and
many others with him. Moi also understands that it is by Raila that
Kibaki found his way to State House. Moi knows that Raila connects with
the masses and has the ability and charisma to lead and influence the
citizenry. Moi hates things that he can't control; explains why a Raila
presidency has him shaking in his boots.

As we all know, Raila suffered imprisonment and detention during Moi's
rule. To justify Raila's unjust incarceration, Moi and his cronies
vilified the man and demonized him. They sold Raila as a "radical" to
the Kenyan people and unfortunately some among us bought the message and
still cast Raila unfairly. Time, change, and events have proven Raila
right and in the process have greatly diminished Moi.

In summary, we must respect Moi for who he is but we must not fear the
man. We must not have high expectations of the man for he is big on
rhetoric, weak on strategy, and terrible on performance. We cannot
sacrifice the greater good of the country in order to honor Moi and make
him feel special. Kenyans are not stupid! We are smart people capable of
rising and making our country a great place for every Kenyan man and
woman. What we do not need are stumbling blocks to impede our progress
and change our course. Kibaki, Raila, and Kalonzo are all men capable of
presenting their mandates to the people based on their visions, skills
and ability. Let us judge each man based on their character, deeds, and
vision. Moi must allow the Kenyan people to decide freely without any
undue duress from him.

When it comes to Raila Odinga, we must all refrain from unbridled
emotion and start applying the right logic. Sure, the man is a maverick
and a nonconformist. Maybe he is a boisterous politician but certainly
he is not a radical who wants to hurt Kenya. And if you find yourself
screaming and shaking in the middle of the night, shake it off, maybe
have a glass of cold water and go back to bed and get some sleep. Leave
Raila Paronia to Moi as we must focus on building our dear country not
only for us but also for posterity. Kenya must be all it can be!

George Kyalo Mutua

Atlanta, GA, USA

Anonymous said...

Kioko still has not found a boyfriend I see. He's really going to need therapy after the elections!! Just to confirm most bloggers thoughts of his limited intelligence he signs off by saying long live PANU!! What is the ideology behind PANU? In short there is none, ODM on the otherhand at least has devolution of power through the majimbo system. KIoko dig yourself a grave!

Vikii said...

Thanks Phil for "educating" me. Tell me what kind of value-addition will enable you to buy something at Kshs 3.6 Million and sell it within the same year for Kshs 420 Million. It is simple, either massive improvements were made on the property or the aquisition price was a joke.

Now you have 'copy-pasted' your post from, that's fine. Just to let u know, I read that article many months before they 'copy-pasted' it from It is obvious you have chosen to deliberately leave the part that talks about the Odingas' humble lifestyle in pre 2001. If an article like the one you pasted is authentic (even for the purposes of Vikii's education),then the part you left is equally the same. You can read it below. It immediately follows after the Pan African petroleum Company turnover of over Kshs 500 million. Here we go:

Scheming that changed Raila’s fortunes

By the time Jaramogi Oginga Odinga died in January 1994, the Odinga family could have been described as just another average middle class family struggling to make ends meet on meager resources.

East Africa Spectre Limited, the family business flagship, was teetering on the verge of a precipice, thanks to political interference leading to bad business and crippling debts.

Raila Odinga’s house in Runda estate was a typical middle class house neighbouring that of self-exiled publisher Pius Nyamora.

But all that suddenly changed in 2001 when Raila shifted political alliances, ditched the opposition and teamed up with President Moi’s Kanu to form what was then known as Kanu-NDP merger.

Soon thereafter, he was appointed Minister of energy and turned a new leaf in his life. With his friend Mark Too, then one of the most powerful personalities around Moi’s state house, holding his hand, Raila was quickly introduced to the world of big business from which he has never looked back.

Indeed, looking back at the kind of fortune Raila managed to accumulate as well as the business links he established during the one year or so he was Energy minister, one comes to the inescapable conclusion that contrary to the conventional wisdom prevailing then, Raila’s rapprochement with Moi was a pure business decision. The man may have made calculated moves knowing only too well that without good money even the best politician might not go very far in achieving his or her dreams.

It is thus not surprising – nor is it by accident – that as Raila prepares himself to make his most serious bid for the presidency, he stands out as one of the richest politicians in the country with a personal fortune estimated to be over Kshs 4 billion besides reported investments in real estate in South Africa and Dubai.

Raila, a calculating schemer, could not have failed to notice the most common denominator between all the three politicians who rose to the presidency; money.

Jomo Kenyatta may not have had tones of money when he became president because he had the benefit of being associated with independence and nationalism. However, when he became president, he moved quickly to amass wealth which he used effectively to sustain himself in power.

His successor, Daniel arap Moi was already a very wealthy man-though discreetly so-when he became president in 1978. And throughout his presidency, Moi used money as his primary tool of political control.

When Kenneth Matiba challenged Moi in 1992 and came second in the presidential elections, it was clear that part of Matiba’s most formidable arsenal was an apparently inexhaustible war chest. Without the kind of money he had at his disposal, there is no doubt Matiba would not have come that close to kicking Moi out of state house.

Another serious challenger to Moi was Mwai Kibaki who came second in the 1997 presidential race. Again Kibaki, like Matiba before him, was not only wealthy in his own right but had a retinue of rich supporters around him who ensured that his campaign machinery was financially well oiled.

It is against this kind of a back ground that Raila must have made the conscious decision in 2001 to drop all pretensions, embrace Moi and make as much hay as he could while the sun shone for he knew well that money is a politician’s best friend, especially one who aspires for the presidency.

Are you still 'educating' me?

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