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Thursday, May 13, 2010

Shocker: Could this be the person behind the illegal changes in the draft constitution?

Who does this man report to?

What do bank robbers do when they want to rob a well-guarded bank? They divert attention from their target. They could for instance start a fire in a nearby building so that when everybody’s attention is diverted they go about their mission. About three years ago I was in Mombasa during the annual Diwali celebrations where lots of fireworks explode in the night sky. Some robbers robbed a night club right next to the Mombasa Sports club and they actually went in when the fireworks were loudest. So when they fired into the air to scare patrons. People nearby assumed it was all part of the fireworks.

Methinks that somebody is trying to pull off a similar move with the draft constitution and as usual Kenyans have fallen for the bait and ignored the really important issues.

So somebody sneaked in two words into the draft constitution. Legally that sentence is NOT correct. Actually what happened is that somebody produced an illegal version of the draft constitution. The law is clear. The only legal draft is the one produced by the COE, approved by parliament and published by the AG. In other words you can go ahead and produce 100 different versions of the draft constitution and it will not matter, except that those producing the different versions will be breaking the law.

So the questions Kenya should be asking is not how the latest move removed credibility from the draft constitution. Instead the questions we should be asking in order of importance are;

1. What was the motive of the person or person who did this?
2. The AG already has a suspect in the form of the NSIS so who gives the NSIS orders? In other words who do they report to?
3. Will the person who has thrown this spanner into the works succeed?

Let us try to answer these questions.

Could the motive have been to sneak in those changes in to the final draft approved by Kenyans? Although this is possible assuming that the NSIS are the guilty party you would also need to assume that they are idiots. This is because it would have been obvious that such a move would NOT have gone undetected. Not in today’s Kenya. We all know that the NSIS are many things but they are certainly NOT stupid. Admittedly our intelligence services like many others in the world have always had a history of coming up with very crazy schemes that are doomed to failure long before they leave the drawing boards. Still it is highly unlikely that this was the motive.

The more likely motive would have been to take away steam from the YES camp and somehow throw a spanner in the works as a first step to halting the new constitution. When you look around at the people who would love to stop the new constitution, this option becomes even more plausible. Family fortunes are going to be wiped out, family political careers brought to a ruthlessly rude end etc.

So who gives the NSIS its’ orders? The answer to that question throws in even more confusion into this bizarre development. NSIS takes orders from one person and only one person and that is the president of the republic of Kenya. Indeed it would NOT make sense for the NSIS to approach the AG without the blessings of the president. So the question now is, is the president playing games? Those who are familiar with the Kibaki administration will argue that the president has delegated part of the task of liaising with the NSIS to one of his cabinet ministers. That minister has been for a long time John Michuki (and not George Saitoti, interestingly). We know that despite his strengths, Michuki is old school and is capable of getting a fit just thinking about the kind of new Kenya that will dawn with the new constitution. Especially where matters of state security (whatever that means) are concerned. Still the question is, would a minister act on their own in this way without approval from the president. That is highly unlikely.

The last question is crucial. Will the person behind this mischief (whoever they are) succeed? Based on what I have seen on the ground the answer to that question is a resounding NO. What many old school chaps still can’t see is that this is a very different Kenya. Just ask the marketing department of any major company and they will tell you that they are mostly grappling to understand a market that has changed and continues to change too rapidly. Politically the writing is on the wall in bold. Kenyans are sick and tired of the old order and they will do anything, including selling their own souls to bring about change. Already the price that has been paid is colossal, so Kenyans have really put absolutely everything they have and more into the card called change. This focus is good and is probably what will save Kenya. Let us not forget that change is always resisted and the people resisting change in Kenya are pretty powerful. Fortunately stopping change this time will be a Herculean task.

The cheeky alteration in the draft constitution also brings out something else that is well worth noting. The minimal reforms that have gradually seeped into the country ever since the repel of the notorious section 2a in 1991 (allowing the re-introduction of a multi-party democracy) that was the beginning of the end of the Kanu monopoly on Kenyan politics hit the security forces in the country most. The intelligence community was at the top of that list. For many years the then Special branch was virtually above the law. They could pick up anybody and detain them endlessly and even make them disappear forever and there was very little anybody could do about it. This was an efficient way of dealing with threats without too much thinking. The truth is that our intelligence community has been struggling to find a new footing. The feeling amongst many within NSIS is that they have completely lost grip on things and when the draft constitution is passed, it will just make matters a lot worse.

My personal view is that minimal changes are sometimes much more difficult to operate under than the kind of sweeping changes that a totally new constitution will bring. The truth of the matter is that our spooks will now have to operate according to International standards. Admittedly the problems they have already had a taste of are the very same problems that have faced Mi5, Mossad, the CIA and others for decades now. They just need to put their thinking caps on and change tact.

In this entire saga one question remains at the top of my mind. Was AG Amos Wako aware of what he was implying when he named the NSIS as suspects in introducing the National security clause into the constitution? The NSIS is NOT the police or any other department. In fact the best way to describe the department is the president’s personal police. So Wako is telling Kenyans that the president’s personal police approached him and “ordered him” to make changes. Wow!!!

My book Dark secrets of the Kenyan presidency details some of the dirtiest presidential secrets involving the intelligence community under Kenyatta, Moi and Kibaki. I will be distributing a summary of the book and a number of chapters from the book for free to Kumekucha readers only. Get it by subscribing to my list for the book. Simple send an email now to;


M. Pesa said...

I hope and pray there are no more banana peels placed on the way of the new constitution. What the spooks at NSIS did was naive and criminal and Wako said as much. Gichangi who also happens to be Kibaki's homeboy must be held accountable for this stupidity. Every word Kibaki utters on Saturday at Uhuru Park will be carefully weighed and analyzed and hopefully he will assure Kenyans that the fake draft is indeed null and void and thus should be disregarded. It beats logic how Kibaki could possibly allows such alterations when he's on his way out of state house and yet want to be remembered for helping bring out a new and just constitution. Let's wait patiently for Sato and see what the Yes leaders say in regard to the criminal and insulting act of Gichangi and co.

Anonymous said...

Nothing has changed in kenya. The hoi polloi remains the same. This katiba will not pass. The moment you saw michuki and moi say NO is the moment you should have forgotten about your new katiba. You should also have taken the behaviour of kalonzo and uhuru more seriously. They know a lot of things you dont know but all you do is mock them. Fact is if the political and money elite does not want this document, the document is going nowhere no matter the wishes of socalled wanjiku. Quit living with fairies.

Anonymous said...

Is this the Chris who's sources has always been wrong?
let me guess, he will next week apologise for saying its Kibaki and tell us he has some more reliable sources....crap crap.... yawan!!!!

Anonymous said...

A very good observation.

When we talk of land,the Kibaki family is equally culpable as Moi's and Kenyatta's.
It is Emilio who is playing with Kenyan's mind. But the wind of change is unstoppable.

As the C-I-C,it is the fear O-O-O is what brought him to "agree" on the new constitution

Anonymous said...

Chris loves gossip sooo much!

Mwarang'ethe said...

The truth of the matter is that our spooks will now have to operate according to International standards.


Chris, what do you mean by international standards?

These so called intelligence bodies are nothing but very dangerous criminal organisations paid by the tax payers, but, under the control of very powerful aristocracy so as to control their sheeps.

What they mean by "national security" is this. It is a permit for foreign agents to come to kenya and arrest whoever they want under the nonsense of fighting "terrorism." Once so arrested, you can be tortured and taken to wherever they want. Thus, if you are looking at Kibaki as the culprit, well, you are failing to understand how this world really works. He is just taking instructions.

If you wanna know how they do it as per so called "international standard," please watch something called "THE INSLAW AFFAIR."

You get an idea of how this world really works under these so called intelligence agencies meant to ensure "our security."

It is available here:

Phil said...

I fail to understand what the panic is all about.

How does an ILLEGALITY, which can so easily be traced, suddenly become a LEGALITY?

The referendum question is:

Do you approve the proposed new Constitution?

Je, unaikubali katiba mpya inayopendekezwa?

The question cannot and will not be changed to be applicable to an ILLEGAL draft. From the CoE, to the PSC, to the August Hse, to the AGs Chamber and to the Govt Printer; this document can so easily be traced.

As yourself why/how very few select people in the NO camp have access to the fraudulent draft? How come none of the newspapers which were paid to distribute the Katiba for free have not had a single fraudulent copy?

Those that were distributed at KICC were all free of insertions.

I have spent the last two days in down-town Nairobi searching for this copy that talks about National Security, but I have not been successful.

Kenya kweli ina wajinga.

Incidentally, Ruto is the only one I have seen waving that fraudulent copy - so we hear.Jirongo was right behind him.

Are some Kenyans that DUMB to look up to the likes of Ruto, Jirongo and Moi to show them the way to reforms?

So akina Ruto are the only characters who can call a press conference and that is headline news?

Seriously? People who should be in Kamiti, now talking about reforms?

Anonymous said...

Awesome piece!.....Just Curious. Who are these guys who seem to quickly water down or pour cold water to any contribution by Chris? Where there is smoke.....definitely there must be fire

Anonymous said...


This could be a repeat of the same stealing and rigging nonsense that happened before, during and after the Presidential elections of 2007.

They say that old habits die hard. Well the main beneficiaries of the status quo - the likes of Michuki, Moi and the rest of the expired and tired Dinosaures supported by their younger "offspring" - will do whatever it takes to maintain the status quo.

Anonymous said...

Wako is a plain incompetent and is just shifting blame to gain public sympathy. Ideally, Wako should take responsibility for the blunder and resign. Otherwise, the credibility of the process has been damaged, much to the glee of the NO camp.

Philip said...

Yesterday I watched K24 Capital talk in which the iron lady was being asked questions by Jeff Koinange.

She had a lot to say about the constitution that many of us aren't aware.

According to the Iron Lady the clause on minimum and maximum land was to encourage large scale farming. She gave an example of Central province where families are inheriting smaller and smaller land from parents. That it will be better, as developed countries, for government to come up with a policy that will make people live together in a small land and consolidate their lands for large scale farming instead of each individual having an eighth of an acre to till by onefself. In addition the purpose of maximum land is to control the current situation where people have large farms that are idle.

The iron lady went ahead to say that those opposing the constitution because of this clause on minimum and maximum land are not genuine and are not opposing the constitution because of this reason but they are opposing the constitution because of clause 40(6), since they fear properties they wrongfully acquired is likely to be taken.

She went ahead to say that priests made their demands which were met and that's why they inserted clause 26(2) and that she was surprised when they decline to support the constitution yet their demand was met. That in Uhuru Park rally by the churches they went ahead to raise more demands yet they were only against Kadhi court and abortion, that is, even if these are met they will still raise more issues.

Judge for yourself.

Philip said...

So far it's the Iron Lady who has explained to me clearly some of the clauses.

I'm now looking forward to hear from P.L.O Lumumba, this guy in a constitution lawyer.

Mwarang'ethe said...


Firstly, it is a mistake to think that, a constitution is a legalistic document. It is more of an economic document.

As such, it is possible to have a very nice sounding legal document, but, if it is not grounded on known principles of wealth creation, it is just rubbish.

Seen from this perspective, a sound constitution should be based on appreciation of two economic laws:

(a) Laws of wealth creation, and
(b) laws of surplus wealth distribution.

If a document is not grounded on these principles, as this one is, it does not matter what lawyers will tell you, it is a waste of time and resources.


According to the Iron Lady the clause on minimum and maximum land was to encourage large scale farming.


Where is the evidence that large scale farming is more efficient than small scale farming?

A farmer with an ox is more efficient per yield per energy expended than the giant mechanised large agri farms. This is hard to believe, but, it is true.

A simple farmer in Mitunguu in Meru can usually produce about 10 calories of energy for each calorie expended.

On the other hand, the American farmer in Iowa, for every calorie of energy produced, he uses up to 10 calories of energy in the process.

Is this our Iron Lady wants us to adopt? In any case, even if it was advisable, do we have such kind of energy to waste? We do not have such amount of energy.

Go to Mitunguu in Meru and see vegetables farmed by small scale farmers leaving there for Nairobi every afternoon. Go to other areas of Meru and see miraa grown by small scale farmers leaving every day. The same is happening in Mbeere.


She gave an example of Central province where families are inheriting smaller and smaller land from parents. That it will be better, as developed countries, for government to come up with a policy that will make people live together in a small land and consolidate their lands for large scale farming instead of each individual having an eighth of an acre to till by onefself.


This is a simplistic solution without much reflection. What the population density of Holland compared to that of Kenya/Central province?

The only solution for kenya is one. INDUSTRIALISE the nation. It it is a fact that, an industrialised nation has a larger population carrying capacity than an agricultural nation.

What she should be saying is this. We emulate industrialised nations in MODERNISING/INDUSTRIALISING our economy.

The only problem is that, to industrialise Kenya will require bold, visionary and imaginative leaders than we have seen so far.

As we have documented here before, you cannot industrialise a nation by importing foreign money to build houses or creating special EPZ's. Such things require you focus on exports and not your own people.

It is these kind of stupid policies that force every Kenyan to the farms and thereby, cause problems.

We must create jobs in the industrial sector. However, this will never happen as long as we have interest rates of 15% in the name of "independent" CBK.

Also, if we want to attract industrialists and not speculators which we are attracting at the NSE and housing sector with foreign money, we must make land cheap.

And the best way to do that is to lower taxes by following Singaporean, Taiwanese, Hong Kong model. This means we must at all cost avoid Western land systems.


In addition the purpose of maximum land is to control the current situation where people have large farms that are idle.


Here, she is ignorant of history. As we have shown before, such reforms failed in Roman Empire, have failed in Zimbambwe and in SA.

So why will they succeed in Kenya? Simply, we cannot equalise fortunes. This is communism at its best and will fail.

Anonymous said...

There goes Dr Mwarang'ethe with his evergreen UTOPIAN prescription. Watch out doc lest you kill your patients (read cheerleaders).

Anonymous said...

Am firmly for NO but I will not waste time going to vote. I guess there will also be many YES guys who will now not vote.

I dont know how people like phil are going to get this thing to pass. My sources tell me cetro and western will substantailly go NO. Add this to rv and the numbers for YES are just not there.

Smurfy said...

Ever heard of a drowning man clutching on anything, even a straw? That’s what the NO guys seem like. How they wish this anomaly could benefit them.
Anyway, it is known to many that Moi, through proxies, decoys and ambiguity is the seventh richest African and by far the wealthiest Kenyan.... though 70% is dirty money and assets, and how he'll use his money for the campaigns is any fool’s guess. He's already set aside 100 million for the Africa Inland Church No campaigns and another 120 million for his political campaign through his toddlers Ruto and Jirongo who are filthy rich themselves.
We all know how Michuki loathes freedoms of expression and is adversely mentioned in the Statehouse meetings where it was agreed how the Aps would be used as PNU agents, and the subsequent meetings to bankroll those murderous imbeciles in the name of revenge killings, evidently preceded by equally idiotic primary killings.
The No side is anti –reform to the bone and this is what we get when politics have to always gravitate around “cutting Raila down to Size”.
Michuki is very powerful, and his words should never be taken lightly. Who forgets how he single handedly funded Kibaki’s early political life as presidential contender way before kina Karume abandoned Baba Moi?
Michuki is one politician Kibaki listens to, and moving him to a “quiet ministry” was Michuki’s idea of wanting to lie low. He has a hand in this, and I’m told all it took was a phone call. Not as much as the Illegality to prevail, but as Chris says, in order for the process to be in disrepute. In fact his people, in cahoots with other anti reformists leaked the whole saga just to soil the process. Does he fear the president? No. He asks Kibaki to his face, “who’ll take care of your interests when you’re retired?” it’s always the errand boys who’ll be arrested, and the real players will just be indifferent and live to mess us up again when the opportunity comes.

Anonymous said...

Go on Mwarangethe, please ignore the haters who have refused to think and prefer to follow the blind octogenarian politicians like sheep.
I support those comments that have unfortunately been deleted pointing at Mwarangethe's consistent objective arguments about this constitution.

We need people who can see through the lies and ignorance of these politicians.
I am happy that Mwarangethe has stood in that gap and he has many admirers.

Kumekucha Prefect

Anonymous said...

such a handsome looking man cannot be behind illegal katiba
Chris stop being JEALOUS show us your face not just the EAR

Anonymous said...

Sycophants comes in all shapes and sizes. They stupidly compare pots and kettle where one group paints the other as worshipping politicians while by doing the same supporting another post/Mwarang'ethe with no input of his/her own.

The only common thread among both sets of sycophants is they are AIRHEADS, no exception, period.

Anonymous said...

anon 6:36 aka Taabu
No-one is worshipping Mwangarethe here. We just like his contributions, that all!

Anonymous said...

Mwarangethe,in Nairobis CBD at the junction of Harambee avenue and Lt. Tumbo street,there is a tall grey building with a sign that reads:-MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND NATIONAL PLANNING and in bigger letters THE TREASURY.Further down Lt.Tumbo st,there is another building with the legend CENTRAL BANK OF KENYA.I guess it would be more worthwile if you presented your papers to either of these entities or maybe even both and prevail upon them you are a man of immense talents in their fields of specialization.Fail to

Anonymous said...

The Katiba has been defeated even before it goes to referendum by none other that Kibaki himself. As an intelligent man, kibaki would like to leave a legacy for kikuyus, just like the way he is expanding thika road with fly overs, a road that leads to central province and nowhere else. He also knows that the best chance a Kikuyu has in becoming president is if there is the simple majority rule at elections, and not as in the present draft where tribes will be forced to work together (read kikuyu and kalenjins). Yet he must be seen to be working - solution: spend their money on a dummy katiba, he will leave a legacy of having tried very hard (twice), but mantain the status quo at the same time.

It was going to be a NO anyway. the people who will wake up very early in the morning to vote yes better not waste their sleep.

Anonymous said...

lol! My fellow Kenyans are very very funny when it comes to all things political hot button issues of the moment.

I wonder how long will it take some of us to regurgitate every word that comes from the usual gutter press, 24/7 rumour mills and street radios, fly by night sms, and the so called realiable eyewitness and foot soldier on ground zero.

Where are the real academics and intelligentsia of Kumekucha to help the masses (in Kenya and the diaspora) disect, ingest and digest the underlining pros and cons of the proposed constitution?

Is the Swahili version of the proposed Katiba available to the public?

English is a very defective language and its deffectiveness can be used to mean different things to different people at different times unlike Swahili.

Well, it would be a real shame in this day and age for the Swahili version of the proposed Katiba not to be available before the August vote is taken by the participating citizenry.

I surrender the Kumekucha floor over to the -
civic minded insiders,
seasoned katiba vetrans, researchers,
well informed observers.

Over to you - great minds, do the best that there is.

The current debate on the proposed consititution is one of those historic moments for Kumekucha to shine with substance that will set it apart from the other political and social gossip sites.

Anonymous said...

SECOND TRY - "HOME GUARDS" are at it again.

It’s very important to remember the BILL OF RIGHTS was removed from the draft in NAIVASHA, its time to look at the HANSEAD of Naivasha and see who the promoters of that REMOVAL were. That’s where the trail begins NOT at the GOVERNMENT PRINTERS. Am sure that will shed some light to the YES NO NO NO YES and YES NO NO YES proponents and the fallout of the three “KINGS” shortly after.

"The copies distributed last week at the official launch of the proposed constitution presided over by President Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga contained changes sneaked in that had not been approved by Parliament" - We expect a very very serious REBUKE form the principles regarding this blatant, irresponsible and above all COLONIAL ACT and a very strong statement on where THEY STAND ON IT. This is in itself against what they have stood BEFORE THE NATION AND PREACHED all this time. KENYANS EXPECT AND DESERVE NO LESS. We wait and see WHO will come out first, openly and truthfully and strongest against this one, we are holding our breath.

Attorney General "had turned down requests by the National Security Intelligence Service (NSIS) to make amendments to the version approved by Parliament

The ENFORCERS OF INPUNITY caught in the act are not amused. WAY TO GO AS A FIRST STEP - that meeting must be in protocol somewhere - WHO HE MET, WHEN AND WHERE and they must have also told him how it was going to executed after his approval, The AG is not stupid and he sure knows the facts are his protection. Because he cannot stop them as it has happened through all the years, he is an OLD TIMMER, that’s how he has survived so long , by PLAYING BALL - But on this one they have parted ways. They no longer have his ball on a wrench. OUCH!

The AG is smart enough and knows which way the referendum goes HE IS OUT, they have nothing more to offer him. Their time is OUT, but before he leaves he has opened a window for us to peek into HOW IMPUNITY WORKS - its not just a simple matter, Its everybody right to know WHO WAS TRYING TO BOMBAZLE A WHOLE NATION. - The AG has SHONE A SPOT LIGHT. It’s up to each and every citizen and especially the FOUTH ESTATE - who believes that we can have a better future, for every single citizen to COME OUT and demand a COMPLETE INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION - This is surely the END of the reign of the HOME GUARDS.

Enter Mr. Ocampo - He gave a two years time line for prosecutions, by that time a NEW National Security Apparatus will be in an advanced stage of formation and the National Security archives will surely be open to the relief of the majority of Kenyans. Free at last from the tyranny of the "SECURITY APPARATUS" I hope we will read the harrowing account of the torture chambers and the culprits, but wait a minute ….. Remember COMPUTER ERROR, FIRE HAZARD, or maybe it will be FLOODS this time that will destroy the records of NSIS before the culprits are brought to book.


Anonymous said...



1. Mr President - Mr Mwai Kibaki - What has he to gain/loose by this insertion.
2. Mr Prime Minister - Mr Raila Odinga - what has he to gain/loose by this insertion.
3. Mr Michuki - Wants a third term for the President. How would that affect freedom of information during his ternure at the head of the "SECURITY APPARATUS"
4. NSSI - The ENFORCERS, Mr Michael Gichangi, Who does he want to protect? surely NOT YOURS OR MINE.
5. The Govt Printer - Mr Gitonga Rukaria
6. The Clergy - Mr John " the baptist" Njue , Mr Peter "the cannon" Karanja
7. Mr RUTO – Used and now dumped ?

There is an DOCTRINE in CIA - "the best way to win your DIRTY battles is to make your enemies kill each other"

“As journalists, you can investigate the matter. Your guess is as good as mine,” AG said. Very Cheeky indeed MR AG! Just to add flavour to that statement - who are the ODD ONES OUT following the CIA doctrine in the list of players above? What the AG is saying you don’t need to guess.

PRIME MINISTER, THE PRESIDENT, NSIS, THE CLERGY, THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER, THE AG, add to that why RUTO was not suspended from Government and IMPUNITY stares right back at YOUR FACE.

AND LASTLY THIS GEM - from the NSIS website:

"The NSIS is very sensitive to Human Rights issues and the individual freedoms guaranteed by the Kenya Constitution and other statutes. Individuals in Government or private society can only come under NSIS investigation if they become part of the threat to national security."

THAT MY FRIENDS mean that they could decide THAT THE WHOLE COUNTRY was a NATIONAL THREAT and they could do with anybody they choose whatever they wished and nobody could do anything about it, does that remind YOU of the reign of terror of the "HOME GUARDS" in the interest of the nation. The "COLONIALS" really don’t get it DO THEY? Game Over, Finito, Kaput - Brace yourself for tough times ahead but there is finally light at the end of the tunnel.


Anonymous said...

Who in the COE had brought up the idea to change the draft in favour of NSIS. Can THE COE please put up a statement or the FOURTH ESTATE should ask each and every member of the COE to SWEAR that They are not the one who brought the topic up for discusion thus fronting for the DESPERADOS.

The public needs to Know , this s an Ochestrated effort stated in Naivasha abd after all efforts in underhand ammendments failed the took the LAW in thier own hands.

There is a click who have total disregard for the LAWS of the LAND. Thier CONTEMPT for the citizens of the Nation is BLATANT , TOTAL AND without and iota of gilt, they see themselves as previlaged and the rest of the People as TOILET PAPER and GARBAGE to use and dispose as they see fit.

They tried to engage in an ILLEGALITY to make thier ILLEGAL actions LEGAL --- TALK ABOUT IMPUNITY

Anonymous said...

"Ati "HOME GUARDS" are at it again."

Na wewe nje? You were never a Mau Mau veteran, and you have the ... to still utter ... words as if any of your blood relatives such father, grandfather, maternal and paternal uncles and cousins ever fought or died for Uhuru.

There are so many people like from central Kenya and some place else whose parents and relatives were never involved in the struggle, and yet they are so quick to claim credit for the blood that was shed, and yet make fun of the "HOME GUARDS' at the same time.

The proposed constitution has nothing to do with the "HOME GUARDS" it has a lot to do with Kenya's future direction, regardless of whether peiople like vote for it or against it.

I guess AG Amos Wako is a son of a "HOME GUARD" from Sagana and a grandson of a "HOME GUARD" from Kerugoyo.

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