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Monday, May 24, 2010

Come on, The Land Does Not Speak Kalenjin

Retired president Daniel arap Moi: Stirring up trouble for selfish reasons.

If, as some allied to the NO campaign are preaching, my little piece of land will be taken over by the government upon passage of the proposed constitution, then I’ll need little or no incentive to activate the Sabaot Land Defence Forces (SLDF) and related Kalenjin militia to battle Nairobi.

Battle Nairobi, because my ancestors suffered from what has come – in Kenyanese – to be known as “historical injustices.”


As witnessed in 2007/8, either only a foolish or callous regime would want to court massive unrest, predicated on “historical injustices.”


Historical injustices, because my great grandfather was a man of means, occupying land and several heads of cattle in the area surrounding Mt. Elgon.


When some British settler came around, the family lost the wealth, and its members were appropriated as farm-hands in the new enterprise.
Two generations later, the clan had been scattered into Bungoma, Uasin Gishu, West Pokot and – in my instance – the wider Trans-Nzoia District, in addition to other parts of the country. I cannot return to my “ancestral” home and claim anything, were I to lose what I call home in Trans-Nzoia. Other people moved in following my grandfather’s displacement, - there’s no telling where the livestock is, and locals have developed new narratives, devoid of our past or immediate presence. The new inhabitants even think colonial history gave us a better lot in Trans-Nzoia, and that we have no business seeking to look back.

Few care to know that the colonial legacy and compromises that gave birth to settlement schemes in Trans-Nzoia, as indeed elsewhere in the Rift Valley province, birthed chronic land problems, now cannon fodder to some in the NO campaign.
Few care to know that the land no longer speaks Kalenjin, and that several among us cannot trace our way back to Egypt, Sudan, Shungwaya, the Congo or West Africa. Few care to know that some in the NO campaign – alongside their surrogates in the YES camp - propped up a privileged, propertied elite in Trans-Nzoia, as indeed the rest of the province, at the expense of the rural poor.

When I was in Cherangany to get my vote a few weeks ago, local concerns centered on a powerful elite seeking to dispose off some community land in Chebarus – a major trading center - before the proposed constitution becomes law, when it is feared such deals might be impossible.
Taken to its logical end, the NO gospel that individual pieces of land may be taken away can only serve to stoke up embers, and awaken demons of the region’s troubled past.

Thus, former President Moi’s recent warning that stability and peace in the province are contingent on a NO vote ought to be seen for what it is: a coded message for Rift Valley residents to either fuata nyayo, or prepare for the worst.
On other occasions, I would have laughed off Moi, and likened his concern for peace and stability to Tony Soprano talking about law and order.

Similarly, I would have easily asked him – as indeed others who have become the political face of NO in the Rift Valley - to take anger management classes from Julius Malema, for their ire at the manner in which the proposed constitution has decidedly re-configured local politics along Moi-era district boundaries.
But the time and occasion is such that we just might be witnessing a revolution in Rift Valley politics, so peaceful that those who make periodic violence inevitable could well be on their way to irrelevance. Skewed as it is, the chapter on devolution particularly gives a glimmer of hope for those in the province who have repeatedly been considered “Kenyans in the Diaspora.”

Creating desolation of the kind witnessed in the province in 2007/8, calling it peace and seeking to build electoral alliances around the same is going to be tenuous, particularly if transitional justice in the grander scheme of things runs its course.


Thus I’ll neither laugh at, nor scorn Moi and company: they have a right to be on the other side of history, and to believe that it will absolve them.
Instead, I would that both the Kalenjin and non-Kalenjin intelligentsia in the province imagine and labor for a shared future, that’s honest about both the past and present, yet even more hopeful about the future. The effort must be clear, bold, with social justice at its heart and so visionary as to consider a tomorrow grounded on a knowledge economy and less on land as the primary factor of production. It might also be time for a new crop of leaders to emerge in the Rift Valley, over which hovers an unforgettable cloud of witnesses: Jean-Marie Seroney, Chelagat Mutai, Bishop Alexander Muge, Masinde Muliro and others.

Of course all this is predicated on social renewal, and the hope that Wanjiku will genuinely outgrow the narrow ends of ethnic nationalism.

Guest post by Jesse Masai. The writer directs the Institute for Faith, Law and Society in Nairobi

Are you an old boy of Lenana School? Are you interested in rugby? If the answer to both questions is YES, then this brand new blog could be fascinating for you.

18 comments:

Mwarang'ethe said...

The effort must be clear, bold, with social justice at its heart and so visionary as to consider a tomorrow grounded on a knowledge economy and less on land as the primary factor of production.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Fine. We seem not to get it. If you do not mind, do you believe, or, is it your argument that, the proposed draft is "bold with social justice at its heart..."? If so, how?

Secondly, we find it extremely naive to argue that, land is not the primary factor in knowledge economy.

Ultimately, the economic gains/productivity of the Information Age will be absorbed by land. Consequently, even building a knowledge based economy requires a sound land/natural resources policy. As we have noted, we do not believe this draft has give us that.

The importance of land in the Knowledge based economy was demonstrated in 2007. In this year, there was a standoff between China and some American companies such as W.R. Grace which is a major supplier of oil refining products.

China was threatening to withhold supplies of special metals. If the stand off persisted, the USA would have been forced to shut down its refineries. This forced the State Depart. to intervene.

As a matter of fact, these rare metals are the KEY to tomorrow's economy. These rare metals are used in clean energy, ipods, Blackberrys, Plasma TVs, defence industry etc. If metals from land are the key, how do you argue land is not still the major factor of production?

Land, was and shall remain the primary means of production.

Anonymous said...

I agree with Prof. Mwarangethe. Chris is naive in as far as matters of economy are concerned.
Chris, its better you stick to stories and rumours and comic books.
Leave the brain work to those who are educated.

Anonymous said...

Chris,
Just imagine if the the present draft had been proposed without the "benefit" of 2007/8 elections carnage in RV, majimbo ya ukabila based on provinces would have acceptable. But after the attempted ethnic cleansing in RV, Kenyans (and especially targets of that cleansing) were not going to accept that type of majimbo. Hence the compromise of Counties as units of devolution. Those in RV who are now angry because devolution is based on Moi-era districts instead of provinces should blame themselves for it because they have perenially been attempting ethnic-cleansing others from RV.

It is sad to say, but PEV was a blessing in disguise, otherwise today we would be endorsing majimbo ya ukabila and so called parliamentary democracy. PEV took our blinkers of naivety off!!

Anonymous said...

Thank you again Mwarangethe, without clear policies on land, natural resources and money, the dream of economical prosperity is just a mirage and the political class unfortunately is either inherently ignorant or too compromised to propagate for the inclusion of these fundamental issues.

Kumekucha Prefect

Kirgitt said...

Peculiar as it may.... ignored as it seems.... the Kalenjin populace suffered most ‘injustices' on matters land under Moi than during the tenure of both Kikuyu presidents. Kericho, Buret and Bomet form the larger Kipsigis 'Protectorate' from Nakuru all the way to Kisii is perhaps the most productive lush part of Kalenjin land reputed for consistent weather and multinational horticultural and agri-business farms. But Moi and his cabal of scavengers from the Keiyo and Tugen sub-tribes invaded the area and grabbed land, such as Mau tea, Kiptagich and parts of James Finlay, inevitably displacing hapless villagers.
This villagers, coupled with the ones displaced during the post independence period by the Kikuyu Kitchen cabinet in Molo and Nakuru ended up pushed into the Mau forest, as it was the only ‘unoccupied’ space. This are the same villagers, though rightfully so, are being hounded out of the water catchment areas. Moi’s land within Kipsigis remains, Land enough to re-locates 80% of all Mau squatters.
As the Kalenjin, we are traditionally ‘land’ people, since time immemorial, as the Maasai are to cows. In fact during our initiation ceremonies, Land features as an object of identity and societal standing, such that it’s easy to invoke war as a way to defend ‘land’. It’s cultural. Just as the Kikuyu fought for their immediate and direct land from the colonialists, of history was largely miswritten, ideologically to portray the fight as the fight for national independence, or just as the mijikenda continue to have ‘issues’ with ‘foreigners amongst them.
But before I digress further, my argument is that, Kenyatta and Moi (feat. his gang of forty thieves) are the reason we have land problems today. As ‘land’ people, and probably the most affected due to post independence thuggery and bullishness, definitely the Kalenjin, Highland Nilotes, who are culturally known as ‘defenders of land’, will be vocal and some times violent when it comes to ‘ancestral’ land.
Does it justify bloodshed? No. Does it correct anything? No. But I support what the National Land Policy is about, and when the illiterate Kalenjin finally learn that they’ll benefit more than lose from the land policy, then Moi will have a lot to fear. In 2007, the larger Kalenjin multi-tribe had ‘beef’ with MOI, and frankly, nothing scares Moi more than an intolerant Kalenjin Tribe, Nothing. That’s why he’s trying his all to sound relevant to them. In 2007, just associating with Moi was enough to earn you a beating by the Kipsigis and the Nandi.
As for William Ruto, Isaac Ruto, Sammy Mwaita, Zakayo Cheruiyot and crew. Simple ;they’re rudderless land grabbers who have to protect their sinful wealth by all means, even hanging on the Clergy’s coat tails for that purpose. Anyone buying their vibe about anything is as naive and stupid as those who think Kalonzo’s trouble always start and finish with Raila.

Philip said...

Mwarang'ethe

Your ideas are good but why don't you start thinking of their implementation and tell us how you think they will be implemented.

I agree with you that the constitution will not create wealth but it will distribute resources, which to me is a major step that we are going to take.

There is no need of discarding the constitution yet it's going to slightly empower mwananchi, the power which can help in the implementation of your ideas. You have been arguing that since it won't create wealth then the government will lok for means of getting this wealth which will mean increase tax and making the mwananchi poor, however my arguement is who is better between a mwananchi who has 100 bob and is not being taxed and a mwananchi who has 200 bob and is being taxed 30%? The later will have more money than the former.

Nobody can claim to me that CDF that was introduced years ago has not benefitted Kenyans simply because the government raised levies e.t.c in order to raise money for the CDF. I know very well that this has improved lives of many people in marginalised areas though not according to our expectations.

Under the current constitution rich people became richer, this will happen also under the proposed constitution, however in the proposed constitution poor people will have slightly more wealth in their hands though the government in it's entirety will not have created it but will distribute it.

If we start considering factors such as population growth, environmental degradation, inflation e.t.c then lives of Kenyans will not improve, however if we consider the two constitutions then lives of Kenyans will be worse under the current constitution than under the proposed constituion therefore these common factors that affect our lives shouldn't be an excuse for claiming that our lives will be worse under the proposed constitution.

I would wish that the question we should ask ourselves should be, "which is better between the two constitution?"

Why should we discard the proposed then it leaves Kenyans poorer to the extent that they will never have time to check good ideas being displayed around? Should they get at least some slight powers?

Anonymous said...

Philip Said,

I agree with you that the constitution will not create wealth but it will distribute resources, which to me is a major step that we are going to take.
-----------------------------------

How does distributing resources that are not getting replenished become a good thing? How will taking the profits (potential capital) from one who creates wealth and distributing it to those who are only consumers help us achieve vision 2030?
What happens when the freebies that are to be distributed get finished?

Think my friend.

Nimesema

Anonymous said...

We all know how the management of the CDF has been used/misused isn´t CDF a form of devolution of resources but has it helped?
Can´t wait to hear our visionary Chris come around 2013 and 2014....

Mwarang'ethe said...

Philip said...
Mwarang'ethe

Your ideas are good but why don't you start thinking of their implementation and tell us how you think they will be implemented.

xxxxxxxxxxx

How a proper land reform/monetary reforms should be done, we have communicated to the COE and some ODM people.

Therefore, what to be done is known and there was and is no excuse to come up with stupid ideas that we have in the draft.

We have also noted that, were the Kenyan leaders interested, a Bill to define and differentiate between common property and private property can be prepared in less than a week.

xxxxxxxxxxxx

Nobody can claim to me that CDF that was introduced years ago has not benefitted Kenyans simply because the government raised levies e.t.c in order to raise money for the CDF. I know very well that this has improved lives of many people in marginalised areas though not according to our expectations.

xxxxxxxx

If a man smashes your car, you will rightly condemn him. However, there is also another way to see such a robber.

You can turn around and say that good chap. By smashing my car, u created work for the mechanic, the manufacturer of the materials for repair, the supplier of raw materials for the metals etc.

In life, there are the SEEN and UNSEEN things. It is easy to focus on the seen things while ignoring the unseen ones. The best way is to focus on the unseen things.

Now, as concerns CDF, what we see are new dispensaries without nurses and doctors. What is unseen is that, in the first 8 months of year 2009/10, we incurred a deficit, (DEBT) of Ksh 89.4 billion compared with Ks 40.3 in the similar period of 2008/9.

Overall, the budget deficit in 2009/10, will be about Ks 168.2 billion. Our debt is now Ksh 1133.3 billion or 45.4% of our GDP. Enough of statistics. Soon, we shall be Greece, Latvia way.

Now, if you analyse what we are doing is this. We are "borrowing" or in proper terms, STEALING/TAXING the UNBORN generations so that we can eat today.

The question is, where do we get this consent from? Is this not the worst tyranny known to man whereby, a father/mother burdens his kids with debts? And, if a father has no right to burden his kids with debts, what gives a mere stupid politician the right to burden our kids with debts?

We are not doing better. Politicians are buying votes and in so doing, we are only sinking into a debt hole which we must crawl out soon. When that time comes, Kenyans will realise the illusions of CDF "growth."

As concerns distribution of wealth by the government, we shall be writing more soon.

Philip said...

" How does distributing resources that are not getting replenished become a good thing? How will taking the profits (potential capital) from one who creates wealth and distributing it to those who are only consumers help us achieve vision 2030?
What happens when the freebies that are to be distributed get finished?

Think my friend"

Nimesema

I have thought beyond where you have reached. It can only be useless if we decide to behave like beggars along our street who don't want to use that resource to create wealth.

We know very well that all wealth comes from land apart from the "manna from heaven"

I can give you several examples of successful ventures that has been done in Kamba region using the CDF money. If distribution of resources has made the poor mwananchi to have means in which he/she can start irrigation of his/her land which has yielded good harvest is that useless?

Please I need your answer and not means of discouraging me from blogging here.

Philip said...

Mwarangethe,

Many people have borrowed loans, while others have ended up becoming poorer, as it might happen to majority of youths who have taken mortgage, others have become richer.

Lack of proper management of loans that the government has taken from public and international institutions does not mean that distribution of resources is a waste of time, infact I see what the government should do is to encourage people to create enough wealth out of the resources distributed to them.

CDF has not worked well because of majorly mismanagement and using it on wrong ventures.

In order to create wealth we need resources, these resources comes from areas like CDF. I personally see that if the CDF is used properly then more wealth will be created, which means that the government, at it's current levies/duties/taxes, will also make more money from us.

This, to me, is the initial steps, which are good and which we need to embrace instead of throwing away the whole constitution and remain where we were hoping that one day things will change.

If African American had gone the Malcolm X way of fighting racial discrimination, I'm sure they could have lost. Why should we, as hungry citizens, live a morsel just because we know how we can get a whole cow? Should we get hold of the morsel as we pursue the cow? That's my approach to the whole situation.

Anonymous said...

Philip,
Wachana na Mwarang'ethe. You are only stroking his ego to feed you with theories. And he is in good company with an array of AIRHEADS as cheerleaders. Treat them like excited student attendeing POL100 class. They get so -excited they delude themselves they have answers for everything.

Caveat: when the only tool you have is a hammer, everything to you looks like nails.

Mwarang'ethe said...

Philip said...
Mwarangethe,

Many people have borrowed loans, while others have ended up becoming poorer, as it might happen to majority of youths who have taken mortgage, others have become richer.

xxxxx

Philip, we shall be back later.

However, for the moment, please note the following. We have been reading "economic booms" in the West for the last 3-5 decades.

Keeping in mind these booms we had, ponder what awaits us, the new "distributors of wealth" we do not have and do not even know how to create.

"Italy to make huge budget cuts."

The Italian government's plans to cut its budget deficit by nearly $30bn over two years are likely to include pay freezes for civil servants, cuts in HEALTH spending and a campaign against tax evasion.

@ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/10157187.stm

xxxxxxx

"Payback Time Europeans Fear Crisis Threatens Liberal Benefits."

"PARIS — Across Western Europe, the “lifestyle superpower,” the assumptions and GAINS of a LIFETIME are suddenly in doubt. The deficit crisis that threatens the euro has also undermined the sustainability of the European standard of social welfare, built by LEFT-LEANING governments since the end of World War II."

@ http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/23/world/europe/23europe.html

Many are yet to understand, but, there is a gathering storm for we have more fictitious wealth than real wealth.

In Kenya, we read this: "Kenya's ticking pension time bomb."

“Unfortunately, majority of the Uhuru generation, just as most Kenyans, have not saved and invested enough for retirement,” says Mr Edward Odundo, the chief executive of the Retirement Benefits Authority (RBA), the pensions industry regulator.

With high INFLATIONARY trends eroding retirement savings, as it happens to most people who have retired or been retrenched, the Uhuru generation will walk into a life of virtual penury. “The breakdown of the traditional social security system means that no longer can the society accommodate the retirees,” says the executive director of the Pensions Advisory Centre (K) Ltd, Mr Fred Nyayieka.

Yet this does not come as a surprise. According to Mr Odundo, Kenyans are a CONSUMING SOCIETY with a poor saving culture. “As a society, we need to change our culture and start saving more,” he says, noting that currently Kenyans save less than 10 per cent of their total income against the recommended level of 23-30 per cent.

@ http://www.nation.co.ke/magazines/smartcompany/Kenyas%20ticking%20pension%20time%20bomb/-/1226/920126/-/item/0/-/149b235z/-/index.html

Anonymous said...

Mwarang'ethe,
Ever heard of the expression LIVING IN YOUR HEAD? Well, you can always troll the net looking for crises any/everywhere to anchor your theories. Only you thinks that your ideas are REVOLUTIONARY and unique and nobody has ever tried them.

One thing is for sure, you won't lack cheerleaders soon because your BRILLIANT ideas won't leave your head. Good luck, expand the ego.

Anonymous said...

Philip said
I can give you several examples of successful ventures that has been done in Kamba region using the CDF money. If distribution of resources has made the poor mwananchi to have means in which he/she can start irrigation of his/her land which has yielded good harvest is that useless?
....................................

Bwana Philip, you do not seem to get it. What does the facts that Mwarangethe has published here say?

Here you go..
Now, as concerns CDF, what we see are new dispensaries without nurses and doctors. What is unseen is that, in the first 8 months of year 2009/10, we incurred a deficit, (DEBT) of Ksh 89.4 billion compared with Ks 40.3 in the similar period of 2008/9.

Overall, the budget deficit in 2009/10, will be about Ks 168.2 billion. Our debt is now Ksh 1133.3 billion or 45.4% of our GDP. Enough of statistics. Soon, we shall be Greece, Latvia way.

Now, if you analyse what we are doing is this. We are "borrowing" or in proper terms, STEALING/TAXING the UNBORN generations so that we can eat today....

So bwana Philip you need to look at the overall picture which is not as exciting as politicians would have you believe.
This is the reality and believe me the proposed constitution will see that debt triple in under 2 years. Add that to the salary increases that civil servants are demanding and you see why the future is gloomy.

Nimesema

Philip said...

Mwarang'ethe

Keeping in mind these booms we had, ponder what awaits us, the new "distributors of wealth" we do not have and do not even know how to create.

Hi,

This reminds me the biblical story of the "Parables of the talents" in Mathew 25:14-30.

My stand is that in order to create wealth one need resources. These resources is what majority of us don't have. The distribution of wealth, even though won't create wealth, it will enable people to have resources. Now it will be upon the government to encourage people to use these resources to create wealth.

If those Europeans government didn't achieve this it doesn't mean we won't achieve also. It's improper economic policy after the initial distribution of wealth that has made them to fail however the initial course of distribution of wealth is good. If one starts heading the right direction then a kilometre in his journey he goes to the wrong direction it doesn't mean that the whole journey was heading the wrong direction. Or maybe you need to tell me where the poor will get resources to create that wealth.

As I told you I agree with your radical ideas however at the moment there are many factors that goes against it. The major being lack of knowledge by the masses who leave in poverty. So far I haven't got from you and the "Anonymous Nimesema" if CDF doesn't help the poor. I still see it helps them a lot all they need to do is to use it to create wealth like the biblical slave who was given 5 talents and came back with 5 more. It therefore means that the government should go further to see how this CDF being distributed to the poor will help them to produce 5 more talents instead of scrapping it in it's entirety. We are lucky to have a constitution that allows the distribution of these resources and further a constitution that is progressive. Your radical idea is good but timing is wrong - already you have been proved by C.O.E. Even if it's placed in the proposed constitution it will be fought by other forces who will easily influence the same poor who are to gain from it to fight against it. That's the reason I've been mentioning about you thinking of it's implementation and you'll realize that the "morsel within your reach is at the moment better than the cow that is miles away."

Let's see the small step that we'll make through the current constitution and then see how we can continue from there. That's why we need to embrace this proposed constitution.

I don't see why few people should have a lot of money which they keep in account in other countries, think of Moi's family. Why should we allow the current constitution to prevail then have the richer making more wealth that isn't distributed to the poor and the same rich invest it in other countries or keep in accounts abroad which don't help us at all? Or since they have a lot they keep in banks which then loan us at high interest rate. It's better we get these money and see how we can use it to create wealth.

Mwarang'ethe said...

Philip wrote:

My stand is that in order to create wealth one need resources. These resources is what majority of us don't have. The distribution of wealth, even though won't create wealth, it will enable people to have resources. Now it will be upon the government to encourage people to use these resources to create wealth.

xxxx

We fully understand your views which are very sincere. However, you are wrong.

Firstly, there is an assumption which Schumpeter (the prophet of innovation) called pedestrian view that, all we need to create wealth in a capitalistic economy is to add capital to labour. Wrong.

As concerns CDF, we have not transferred any wealth to the poor. We have transferred BORROWED money to enable them claim real wealth.

However, the real wealth has not increased. Since the real wealth has not increased, when it comes to payment, we shall have to sell our existing assets like roads via road tolls. This will leave us even poorer.

Secondly, it is amazing to hear government officials claim that, they help the poor by re-distributing wealth. We shall give some statistics in our next essay on this issue.

For the moment, it is sufficient to note the following statistics. In the first 8 months of 2009/10, GOK revenue was Ksh 350.7 billion, but FELL SHORT by Ksh 34.8 billion. The first question is, if we have created wealth with CDF, why are we still falling short in revenues?

However, more importantly is this. Out of the abve revenue, income tax contributed Ksh 123 billion and VAT Ksh 92 billion. This in total is Ksh 215 billion.

Now, let us look at VAT. VAT is put on essential commodities of life. Who are the majority buyers of these commodities? We answer, the poor. So, it is the poor who pay much of the VAT. Even worse, big business love such indirect taxes for two reasons:

(a) they increase their profits for they collect more than what reaches the tax man, and

(b) they make it expensive for small businesses to start businesses which limits competition.

When it comes to income tax, again, it is the low income groups who carry much of the burden. We know that, Kibaki, MPs, Judges etc do not pay tax.

Even worse, once the poor pay these taxes, they are used to build roads, ports which ensure increased land values.

As a result, those who own lands at Thika, Lamu etc CRAWBACK all the little tax they pay. So, Wanjiku is the only one who pays tax. Genius arrangements!

So, as to fool Wanjiku, Kibaki employs an army of idlers to rob her and then another army to take back to her. How foolish?

In the UK, the Treasury statistics tells us that, when people's incomes and savings are taxed, there is a loss of 30p for every £1 raised.

That 30% loss is the wealth and welfare that WOULD have been produced if the govt. had not raised its revenue by means of taxes that destroy wealth.

If you use these statistics, for instance, in 2005, UK lost a staggering £ 138 billion. The same can be said about Kenya.

All we are saying is simple. Stop taxing the poor these Ksh 217 billion and fund the common activities from land rents.

Once the poor have their Ksh 217 billion, which is far higher than any CDF can and will ever give, the poor who are not foolish, will invest and spend their incomes the way they want. This is the meaning of democracy and liberty.

Anonymous said...

When will old man Moi head south? This is the same individual who screwed up the country in the place and now is still trying to crow and bark for all the wrong reasons in the world.

Silence is golden and it would be in his great interest to just shut up and let others do the talking for all the right reasons, regardless of whether they are in the 'Yes Camp' or 'No Camp'.

Kenya lost a lot of political, economic, social and international traction during all the years the old man was in control and riding the country into the ground.

I just wish he would learn to shut up and concentrate his last years or months on earth writing his memoirs of how he went wrong and led Kenya astray.

Human beings don't eat land, the land has always been there and it will be there when all mortals have gone. I just don't see what the clamouring is all about.

Katiba Mya, Kenya Mya.

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